The Amoco site, located on the south shore of Muskegon Lake, was restored in 2010 and 2011. Restoration included removal of foundry fill, including the removal of a historic peninsula to restore Muskegon Lake bottomland.
Along the shoreline, concrete, debris, and rubble was removed and replaced with bioengineering. Native trees, shrubs, grasses, and wildflowers were planted along the shoreline.
Year Restored: 2010/2011
Area Restored (by habitat type):
Shoreline softening=2,050 linear feet
Open Water Wetland=4.97 acres
Emergent Wetland=1.61 acres
Upland Buffer=1.64 acres
$1,369,273 construction cost
22,407 cubic yards of fill removed
71 native species planted
14,232 native plants installed
29 habitat structures installed
2019 Site Monitoring Summary
Site Summary Statistics
2019 Native Mean Coefficient of Conservatism: 3.7
2019 Floristic Quality Index (FQI): 21.6
2019 Total Native Species: 43
2019 Percent Invasive Species Cover: <5%
Invasive species present:
Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
White sweet clover (Melilotus alba)
Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
For more information on invasive plants and their management CLICK HERE.
Dominant native species:
Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)
Common Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris)
Tall Goldenrod (Solidago altissima)
Sawtooth Sunflower (Helianthus grosseserratus)
Arrow Arum (Peltandra virginica)
For more information on native plants and planting CLICK HERE.
Native Mean C=average coefficient of conservatism (C). Each plant is assigned a “C” value, which represents the probability that a plant will occur in an undisturbed area. C values range from 0-10. Wetlands with a native mean C greater than 3.5 are considered “high quality aquatic resources” (USFWS)
FQI=Floristic Quality Inventory, which is an indication of quality of the vegetation at a given site. In general, wetlands with an FQI above 20 are considered “high quality aquatic resources” (USFWS)
Currently, invasive species are minimally present and have been successfully managed along the shoreline. However, the site should be regularly monitored for invasive species and removed through hand pulling or selective herbicide treatments when they are found. Spotted knapweed and purple loosestrife pose the greatest threat to this site. For more information on invasive plant management, CLICK HERE.
High water levels have caused the shoreline to recede, and some erosion has begun to occur. High water levels have also reduced the diversity of the vegetation along the shoreline. It is important that the remaining vegetation remain in place, and any mowing along the shoreline should be limited so the plant roots can maximize their ability to reduce erosion from the high water and waves.
The site should be monitored 2-3 times per year to look for erosion and any invasive plants.